I borrowed most of the material from the articles on the web and summarized for our study.
Israel’s history began with Genesis 12:1-3
Jewish history had three Patriarchs: 1st Patriarch was Abraham around 1800 BCE.
2nd Patriarch was Isaac son of Abraham – 3rd Patriarch was Jacob son of Isaac.
Jacob was the father of the 12 tribes from whom all Jewish people descended.
God changed Jacob’s name to Israel. (Gen 32:28)
All the Patriarchs and their children lived mostly in Canaan.
In Genesis 46 we read Jacob and his sons settled in Egypt due to acute famine.
As the time progressed, the families multiplied to a large group of people.
After the death of Jacob and his sons a new Pharaoh ruled Egypt who did not know Joseph who was the reason for all his brothers and father to migrate to Egypt.
He enslaved the Israelites for almost 400 before Moses came to lead them back to the Promised Land.
After 40 years of desert wandering the Israelites finally entered the Promised Land but only two men from the original group who left Egypt could make it – Joshua & Caleb.
Moses could not enter into the Promised Land because of disobeying God’s command.
Because of that Moses handed over the leadership to Joshua.
Before Exodus & after Exodus journey some notable miracles happened:
Ten plagues to manifest the power of God before Pharaoh
Passover night – this killed all first born Egyptians
Passover night – the blood of the lamb saved all Israelites in Goshen
Day & night Pillar of God – Firewall - stood with Israelites throughout the journey
Manna – from the skies – Quails for meat provided
Moses received The Ten Commands – The Law – The Ordinances.
Under Joshua leadership Jericho walls fell, as an act of God.
Joshua felt God’s presence throughout his victories & settlement in Promise Land.
Period of Judges - 1200 BCE to 1100 BCE
God Raised Judges - Othniel, Ehud and Shamgar, Deborah and Barak – Gideon, and lastly Samson.
Samuel came into the picture as a judge & a prophet around 1075BCE.
He anointed the first King Saul & later anointed David when God rejected Saul.
The period from 1000-587 BCE is known as the "Period of the Kings".
The prominent king was King David (1010-970 BCE) - Jerusalem as Capital city.
His Solomon ruled around (970-931 BCE) – He built the first temple at Jerusalem.
Solomon married too many foreign wives who brought idolatry into Israel and distracted the king to worship idols.
As a result idolatry spread throughout Israel after the death of Solomon.
When Solomon died the kingdom was split in two.
Northern Kingdom called Israel with 10 tribes: Asher, Dan, Gad, Issachar, Joseph [2 tribes: Ephraim and Manasseh], Naphtali, Reuben, Simeon, Zebulun.
The Southern Kingdom called Judah with two tribes Judah & Benjamin.
Levi was not included because they had no set territory but lived throughout the 12 tribes.
From this point onward almost every king was an idol worshiper.
During this time Lord God raised the prophets to speak out against their sin and idolatry.
Elijah - Period of His Prophecy 874-852 B.C.
Elisha- Period of His Prophecy 850-798 B.C.
In 722 BC the Assyrians - conquered Northern Kingdom of Israel and took the ten tribes away never to be seen again.
In 586 BCE, Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar's army captured Jerusalem, destroyed the Temple, and exiled the Jews to Babylon (modern day Iraq).
King Cyrus of Persia encouraged them to return and also allowed to build 2nd temple.
God continued to send prophets (Daniel) to encourage the Hebrews that their captivity would only last 70 years.
The prophets also gave a message of hope that one day God would send His Messiah, who would not only save the Hebrews but the whole world.
From this year onward, the region was ruled or controlled by a succession of superpower empires of the time.
In the following order: Babylonian, Persian, Greek Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Empires, Islamic and Christian crusaders, Ottoman Empire, and the British Empire.